Drink Occitanie: Domaines Paul Mas Winemaker Bastien Lalauze

Lately, everyone seems to be talking about Occitanie (the new department name for the merger of Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées). Maxim called it The Wine Soaked Region that is France’s Best Kept Secret. Vogue said to Skip Bordeaux – This is the New Wine Region to Visit in France. Condé Nast Traveler wrote Why Langeudoc is Like Nowhere Else in France.

This all opens up a more serious conversation (despite the clicky headlines) about the wine of the region, as newcomers discover an area that is home to multi-generational winemakers as well as those that see the potential in re-starting life fresh as a winemaker in Southern France. In other words, both sides of the story are listening: the producers and the consumers.

After a recent trip to Occitanie I noticed several themes in chatter about the area, present both in southern France and abroad. My recent conversation with Bastien Lalauze – winemaker and estate manager at sustainably-farmed Château Martinolles in Limoux, a sparkling wine property in the Domaines Paul Mas family – brought to life these themes, illustrating where practice and perception are coming together in a very exciting circuit.

Languedoc Wine, Limoux, Young French Winemaker
Bastien Lalauze, Château Martinoles winemaker and estate manager leads a guest through the winery. Courtesy: Domaines Paul Mas
On New Quality In Occitanie

Lalauze confirmed stories that I heard while in Occitanie, that yes – vines have been pulled up. In Minervois they used the term “grubbed up” and the assumption is that this is being done because some of the vineyards produce low-quality (bulkish) wine; order for Languedoc to shine they must replant. There is truth to this, but the decade-old reforms that initiated this practice have now expired, allowing for the results to come to fruition. Lalauze shared that he is now planting about 20 hectares each year, most of it on vineyards that have rested under cover crop for 5-7 years.

First Sparkling Wine, French Wine, Languedoc Wine
The Château Martinolles vineyards in St. Hilaire. Courtesy: Domaines Paul Mas

There are still beautiful heritage vines there, including some Clairette that Lalauze refers to as “ancient” along with 38 other varietals sprinkled throughout the Domaines Paul Mas vineyards. Paul Mas, of course, is a significant name in the area, under the guidance of namesake Jean Claude Mas. Domaines Paul Mas owns more than 600 hectares of vineyards (including Château Martinolles) and their partnership extends to another 1,312 hectares of vines husbanded by other local growers. This depth is indicative of the pulse of creativity in a wine region capable of both large quantities and forward-reaching fingerprints. There is room for change, room for outsiders, room to breathe in the Languedoc – and where there was (10, 20 years ago) room for improvement – there is now, simply, improvement.

Lalauze himself could be seen as a fresh face, having joined Domaines Paul Mas in 2011 at his first-ever post as estate manager and winemaker. Flush with an education in agriculture, engineering, biology and geology, Lalauze says he was ready to “accept the challenge” when offered the post at Château Martinolles. Not from a winegrowing background, the “diversity of tasks” and the opportunity to create something new each year appealed to Lalaluze.

On Sustainability + Biodiversity in Occitanie

Château de Martinolles is farmed sustainably, with a certification from Terra Vitis, a wholly interesting concept with influence in six major wine regions in France. Of their mission they state, “Humankind and its environment are at the heart of the Terra Vitis project. The protection of natural resources is one of the major stakes today, but not the only one. The health of the estate manager and that of their employees, neighbours and consumers is just as important to Terra Vitis.” This holistic approach was echoed by Lalauze in our conversation as he told me that he has to “take the vineyard globally” in a culture of organic and even biodynamic influences. “It’s a patient job,” he said, and one that is a big change in Occitanie. However he is not alone. In Limoux there is a gathering of around ten other vignerons, allowing for “a lot of exchange” in terms of the way they look at the farm, “not just at production but also the people”.

South of France wine, Where is the Languedoc
Map of AOPs in Languedoc-Roussillon Midi-Pyrénes – now known as Occitanie. Credit: Jill Barth

It became apparent during my conversation with Lalauze, that he has a passion for biodiversity in the soil of his vineyards, which he constantly works to increase. The use of gentle machines to “kill the weeds without shocking the vines” is on the uptick as he adds to the acreage receiving such treatment each year.  He plants his vineyards with three to five varietals that don’t compete directly for soil space – those with varied root systems, those that reach for different levels in the earth (top to deep, and those that reach wide). He’s working on the issue of lack of water (when applicable) by utilizing mulch.

One of the most exciting things about Lalauze’s vineyards is the intense soil biome that he’s constantly cultivating, the living organic matter that rules the roost under the visible vines. He says that “nitrogen created by chemistry was easy, but the microorganisms aren’t able to work anymore and now we have to do it all again”. So instead of using synthetic fertilizers, Lalauze cultivates plants that trap nitrogen in the air and deposit it back into the soil. Mycorrhizal Fungi increases the presence of microorganisms that are suitable to the soil – creating a natural balance in the vineyard that depends less and less on fighting back nature with harshness and synthetics.

Soil, Vineyard, Biodiversity, Soil Health
Mycorrhizal fungi as illustrated by Bastien Lalauze.

That term, Mycorrhizal Fungi, is very important to Lalauze; he created a diagram to explain how this underground process works. I found the following explanation from the New York Botanical Garden, “Mycorrhizae are symbiotic relationships that form between fungi and plants. The fungi colonize the root system of a host plant, providing increased water and nutrient absorption capabilities while the plant provides the fungus with carbohydrates formed from photosynthesis.” Basically, these create a link between the soil and vine  benefiting the exchange of nutrients. When the soil is over-processed or treated with chemicals, these die out or lose their working power – something Lalauze authentically wants to avoid. He leans heavily on preventative rather than curative methods when it comes to disease, and exhibits confidence that Limoux is the perfect place to showcase the capability of a healthy vineyard, “Our Languedoc climate is conducive to organic farming because it is dry and windy which decreases the pressure of diseases like powdery mildew.”

On Sparking Wine In Occitanie

The story goes that first sparkling wines were invented at Saint Hilaire Abbey (in Limoux) in 1544 – setting the stage for the show-stealing Champenois that people world wide associate with bubbles in their wine. Lalauze is a specialist when it comes to sparkling wine, in charge of all sparkling wines at Domaines Paul Mas, which are produced exclusively at Château Martinolles. He says that he “learned from the sparkling wines how to make still wines” because one must “be precise when making sparkling” wines. But in the cellar, he says, they are the most interesting.

A few examples from Lalauze’s portfolio:

Crémant de Limoux Brut, AOP Limoux: 60% Chardonnay, 20% Chenin Blanc, 10% Pinot Noir, 10% Mauzac. Aged 18-24 months before disgorgement, rich and acidic. What is crémant? Translated as creamy, in the wine world this is a sparkling wine where the second stage of fermentation (to be thanked for the bubbles) happens in the bottle. Made similarly to Champagne, but termed crémant because it is made outside of Champagne. In several wine regions throughout France, one will find the regional crémant, bubbled similarly but with slightly different requirements. (NV, retail around $16)

Crémant de Limoux  Brut Rosé, AOP Limoux: 70% Chardonnay, 20% Chenin, 10% Pinot Noir. Made in the style mentioned about but with a beautiful rosé shade. (NV, retail around $16)

How is sparkling wine made? What is cremant?
The spent yeast settles in a bottle of Crémant de Limoux rosé. Courtesy: Domaines Paul Mas

Blanquette de Limoux Méthode Ancestrale, AOP Limoux: 100% Mauzac, a regional grape with notes of fresh cut grass and apple cider. I find this to be particularly delicious and I’ve featured this wine here. (And other Blanquettes de Limoux here and here.) Méthode Ancestrale is an ancient process employed to create bubbly wines by bottling the wine before the first fermentation has finished. This creates a release of carbon dioxide  in the bottle as the fermentation rolls on. (NV, retail around $16)

Brut Blanc de Blancs, IGP Vin de France: 100% Chardonnay made in the same method as the crémant, but because it is not made under the Crémant de Limoux standards, it is called a mousseux, or sparkling wine.  In this case it is the sourcing of grapes outside of Limoux, from elsewhere in the Languedoc, that prevent the stamp of the Crémant de Limoux label. (NV, retail around $16)

Sparkling rosé, Champange vs other sparkling wine
Château Martinolles Crémant de Limoux Rosé. Courtesy: Domaines Paul Mas
On The Real Message in Occitanie

Notice two sub-themes, both significant in Occitanie. The first is the scope of styles: local tradition (the Blanquette, with native grape and the historical méthode ancestrale) / regional, yet French (the crémants, made in a French style with regional flair) / open and stylized (the flexible, international blanc de blanc).

The second is the price: all high-quality, primarily AOP wines priced under $20 – for a carefully made bubbly by a respected domaine with sustainable standards.  Those two things: scope and  price attractiveness/value (and yes, they are available in the US) ring through every conversation I have about Occitanie.

What is Occitaine, Where is Occitanie?
Beautiful Occitanie, soothing naturally and rich in experience. Credit: Jill Barth
On the Place that Has it All

I asked Lalauze to tell me what it’s like, in his words, around his vineyards. He noted the Mediterranean climate – those hot days and cool nights. Lots of acidity in Limoux wines, with vines at around 300 meters elevation. There are hills, trees and streams. A diverse terroir of garrigue to oak forest. When hiking the vegetation will change, new environments will emerge. The mountains, Mount Alaric and the Montagne Noire rangethese are the things he pointed out. No mention of monuments or ramparts, of museums or shopping. No mention of restaurants or hotels or universities… all of that is there, for sure, but a winemaker like Lalauze keeps his eyes on the vines, the land and terroir and “accepts the challenge” of being part of the new face of Occitanie.

Advertisements

8 Comments Add yours

  1. Hadn’t heard of Occitanie! Thanks for the introduction!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Jill Barth says:

      Well, it is still being called Languedoc (I do it too), but trying to be correct. I think you’ll hear Languedoc for a long time still. Thanks for reading!

      Liked by 1 person

      1. Ah! Good to know…thanks Jill!

        Like

  2. I love reading this AFTER I have already read each article you mention in your opening paragraph about the new Occitanie. You always offer a personal depth that I enjoy. I embrace the “real message” of Occitanie and look forward to finding and drinking some of the bubbles. Cheers.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. amarch34 says:

    Interesting to get your view as an ‘outsider’ if I may use that term. I’m not a great fan of Limoux sparkling wines generally but there are some striving to improve quality.
    I would love to debate sustainability with you. The whole certified sustainable thing, as my friend and boss, “means nothing”. No guarantees about viticulture and methodology. But maybe that’s for another time.
    There is a move to quality for sure. Outsiders get a lot (too much?) of credit for this and there is certainly some truth in their role as catalysts for change. But it’s a huge region and different pasts are progressing at different rates with individuals in all acting as pioneers.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Jill Barth says:

      Alan – good to hear from you as I am always an outsider. Having always been a writer (storyteller) and never a wine grower or maker, it is with a good dose of humility that I put together any article. But… I love the flavor of Limoux sparkling, a preference for sure, and I can’t deny that I gobble it up!

      It is my impression that most growers aren’t enthralled with certifications, but many find it to be an arrow in their quiver when making a statement about ‘who they are’ to the consumer and in the industry. In fact, I’m thinking of a story about all of the various certifications that I’ve noted on L’occasion and what makes them substantial (if at all). Three certs that have come to my attention, all of which include an element of ‘people’, ie: safe and quality work environment AND all work on a point system which allows the producer to build around their strengths and economic sustainability along with the traditional environmental aspects: Lodi Rules, Fair n Green (Germany) and Long Island Sustainable Wine Growing. I’m sure there are more and I’d love to collect examples for my story if you know of such a thing happening in your areas (UK and Southern France).

      I’ll go on the record that I find bio-d fascinating but there are folks that call it hogwash. (But I’m also a certified yoga teacher and I’ve studied the 72,000 nadis in the human body – those that deliver energy to what would otherwise be a shell) and I can’t help but appreciate that energy is flowing all around, why not in the vineyard? (But that IS for another time because I don’t have the chops to prove anything and I’m still open to any persuasion that doesn’t start with the phrase “Look,…” 🙂 And I don’t argue that bio-d is necessarily ‘sustainable’ – but a philosophy sustained by those that value the practice.

      What gets me excited, as a writer, is when someone else is excited about their work. I’ve found that the people that get really excited about soil seem to be quite engaging and knowledgeable. If a certification helps them in their road to expertise and sway, I’m cool with that. Lalauze lit up when we started talking about soil health, and I wanted to be sure that the article conveyed that.

      One last thing, re: The Outsiders – I think they have an leg up communicating, being poly-lingual as a group.

      Thanks for your comment – I realize now I had several post scripts to add to the story and you’ve teased them out for me!

      Liked by 1 person

  4. Thanks for the introduction and the invitation! I’m planning on joining you this month! PS How is it that I did not know you are a certified yoga instructor? I did teacher training 2x — once with Erich Schiffmann in Santa Barbara (general/flow/vinyasya) and then with Bryan Legere — Iyengar. I taught for years as well.

    Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s